Cryptosystems, highly technical systems that provide privacy through secret encoding, have been an important part of the electronic information world for many years. These systems are the foundation for all electronic information exchange. For example, financial institutions and banks rely upon cryptography to securely transmit critical and private information over the Internet. Especially now, during the e-commerce explosion, secure and reliable exchange systems are vital for the world's economy.
These cryptosystems protect data by using hardware and software in a process that protects data by performing mathematical operations/algorithms on it. The result is data rendered unintelligible, which is called cipher text. This cipher text is then transmitted over insecure phone lines or networks such as the Internet. If someone intercepts this cipher text, it is indecipherable and meaningless to him or her. When the cipher text reaches its final destination, it can be decrypted into the original state of the data.